It’s snowing somewhere

It turns out that 2015 was the warmest year on record (which goes back to 1880) according to NASA and NOAA. And not only do we get:

Most of the warming occurred in the past 35 years, with 15 of the 16 warmest years on record occurring since 2001.

we also note that 2015 easily broke the record set in 2014:

During 2015, the average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 1.62°F (0.90°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest among all 136 years in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.29°F (0.16°C) and marking the fourth time a global temperature record has been set this century. This is also the largest margin by which the annual global temperature record has been broken. Ten months had record high temperatures for their respective months during the year. The five highest monthly departures from average for any month on record all occurred during 2015.

After 2014 set the record climate deniers all quickly noted that it was barely above the previous record. I wonder what excuse they’ll use this year to say why this doesn’t show there’s global warming (obviously they’ll use the fact it was a El Nino year, but what else?)?

Note: It’s sad that I know most of the conservatives will continue to deny the existence (or at least the importance) of global warming despite this new data which pretty clearly shows it.

A moon emerging from a moon

Here’s a nice picture of one of Saturn’s moons (Enceladus) emerging from behind another one (Dione) or perhaps it’s starting to disappear behind it. Anyway there’s some moons (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute):

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Lots of stars

I’m being lazy, so here a few pictures of stars (in the form of galaxies, taken by the Hubble; Credit: NASA):

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This image shows the galaxy Messier 94, which lies in the small northern constellation of the Hunting Dogs, about 16 million light-years away. Within the bright ring around Messier 94 new stars are forming at a high rate and many young, bright stars are present within it – thanks to this, this feature is called a starburst ring. The cause of this peculiarly shaped star-forming region is likely a pressure wave going outwards from the galactic centre, compressing the gas and dust in the outer region. The compression of material means the gas starts to collapse into denser clouds. Inside these dense clouds, gravity pulls the gas and dust together until temperature and pressure are high enough for stars to be born.

This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows Messier 96, a spiral galaxy just over 35 million light-years away in the constellation of Leo (The Lion). It is of about the same mass and size as the Milky Way. It was first discovered by astronomer Pierre Méchain in 1781, and added to Charles Messier’s famous catalogue of astronomical objects just four days later. The galaxy resembles a giant maelstrom of glowing gas, rippled with dark dust that swirls inwards towards the nucleus. Messier 96 is a very asymmetric galaxy; its dust and gas is unevenly spread throughout its weak spiral arms, and its core is not exactly at the galactic centre. Its arms are also asymmetrical, thought to have been influenced by the gravitational pull of other galaxies within the same group as Messier 96. This group, named the M96 Group, also includes the bright galaxies Messier 105 and Messier 95, as well as a number of smaller and fainter galaxies. It is the nearest group containing both bright spirals and a bright elliptical galaxy (Messier 105).

The arrangement of the spiral arms in the galaxy Messier 63, seen here in a new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, recall the pattern at the centre of a sunflower. So the nickname for this cosmic object — the Sunflower Galaxy — is no coincidence. Discovered by Pierre Mechain in 1779, the galaxy later made it as the 63rd entry into fellow French astronomer Charles Messier’s famous catalogue, published in 1781. The two astronomers spotted the Sunflower Galaxy’s glow in the small, northern constellation Canes Venatici (the Hunting Dogs). We now know this galaxy is about 27 million light-years away and belongs to the M51 Group — a group of galaxies, named after its brightest member, Messier 51, another spiral-shaped galaxy dubbed the Whirlpool Galaxy. Galactic arms, sunflowers and whirlpools are only a few examples of nature’s apparent preference for spirals. For galaxies like Messier 63 the winding arms shine bright because of the presence of recently formed, blue–white giant stars, readily seen in this Hubble image.

Water on Mars

It’s not obvious to me, but it seems this picture (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona):

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shows there is flowing salt water on Mars:

Using an imaging spectrometer on MRO, researchers detected signatures of hydrated minerals on slopes where mysterious streaks are seen on the Red Planet. These darkish streaks appear to ebb and flow over time. They darken and appear to flow down steep slopes during warm seasons, and then fade in cooler seasons. They appear in several locations on Mars when temperatures are above minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 23 Celsius), and disappear at colder times.

I guess I should start looking into beachfront property there, it should be cheap.

More Pluto

New Horizons is now well past Pluto, but new images are coming out. The first looks at the region called the Cthulhu Regio and Sputnik Planum plains (I love the names by the way; Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute):

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The next is a nice picture of Pluto’s largest moon Charon:

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Dione and a heron

I’m not sure which of these pictures is more unlikely:

1, A heron on the Malden River near the end of the above ground portion:

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2,  Saturn’s moon Dione, as captured by the Cassini spacecraft (those are Saturn’s rings that cross behind the moon; Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute):

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Pluto

And here’s a close up picture of Pluto from the New Horizon spacecraft (Credit: NASA/APL/SwRI):

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