So, Hillary Clinton lost (via here) by negative 2.86 million votes (in other words she had 2.86 million more votes than Donald Trump but lost the election anyway). She lost in the electoral college which was used instead of direct votes:
Some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. Madison acknowledged that while a popular vote would be ideal, it would be difficult to get consensus on the proposal given the prevalence of slavery in the South:
There was one difficulty however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people. The right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States; and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections.
So, one of the main reasons for the introduction of the electoral college was to give the slave states more power than actual votes would indicate; the less populous states went along with it since it also gave them more power. You would think that they would have gotten rid of it when the 14th amendment was passed, but it didn’t happen.
One way to make the electoral college more fair would be to increase the number of representatives in the House. At the beginning a Representative represented about 30,000 people. The number of constituents slowly increased through the 1800s up to about 200,000 by 1900. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 capped the number of representatives at 435 and now each Rep. has about 720,00 constituents. Right now, since the number of electoral votes is the number of representatives plus the number of senators, the less populous states have more voting power per voter than the more populous states:
The average electoral vote represents 436,000 people, but that number rises and falls per state depending on that state’s population over 18 years of age. (The map above shows the population 18 years and older per electoral vote by state.) The states with the fewest people per electoral vote, and therefore the highest “vote power,” are Wyoming, Vermont, and North Dakota. In Wyoming, there are 143,000 people for each of its three electoral votes. The states with the weakest votes are New York, Florida, and California. These states each have around 500,000 people for each electoral vote.
The good thing about reapportionment, is that it doesn’t take a Constitutional amendment to change. Let’s get on that.